No Sperm (Azoospermia)
There are a few possibilities in the case of no sperm in ejaculation. Sperm may not be discharged depending on an obstruction in the ducts, or it accumulates behind the blocked region. In such a case, sperm can be aspirated by a needle from the duct (PESA) or by from the testicle (TESA) or by taking a sample (TESE) and the sperm is found in these samples and microinjection is performed by injecting into the oocyte. The oocyte fertilization and pregnancy chances of sperms taken from the testicle or sperm ducts are extremely close to the ejaculated sperm.
Secondly, sperm production is very low. There is only production in a limited number of tubules and it cannot reach a sufficient number to be discharged. In these patients, sperm is found by TESE procedure and the oocytes are fertilized.
The last option is the case of no sperm and no sperm stem cell in the testicle, in which it is not possible to administer IVF-microinjection treatments in these patients.